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Table of contents

Because it perpetuated the faulty perceptions of slum life that help Westerners feel superior. It ignored the positive aspects of slum communities, which can often make American suburbs look dysfunctional—even sociopathic—by comparison. These days, many socially-rich slums are being bulldozed In India, to be replaced with the isolated, anonymous life of apartment and condo towers.

Why would I want to move? I think the communities we have there are much stronger than you would even have here. Those examples are just a tiny sampling of the suffering that can arise from imprecise terminology. Sometimes, a perfectly good word takes on a negative meaning as a result of bad practices. In Milton Keynes, England several public housing projects are being demolished and replaced with better housing. The word itself has become toxic. Rendering courtesy of U. Air Force Academy. Some city leaders wanted to boost their tourism revenue by letting the U.

This gives the land bank access to state brownfields funding. On the other hand, every plot of land on the planet is contaminated by something—old lead-based paint, oil leaks from vehicles, brake pad dust, etc. Most homes and lawns in the U. And so it is with resilience, where terminological fuzziness abounds. Part of the problem is that people often say they seek community resilience without specifying the type of resilience: social, natural disaster, climate, economic, etc.

Traditionally, cities hit by catastrophe whether sudden and natural, or gradual and socioeconomic have rather mindlessly gone about rebuilding in a way that merely reconstructed what had been lost. Plaza of the Restorationists, Lisbon photo by Storm Cunningham. I described this concept in my book, The Restoration Economy , showing how Lisbon, Portugal rebuilt the entire city on higher ground after a massive earthquake and tsunami in They were also smart enough to take advantage of the opportunity to correct a number of urban planning mistakes actually, lack of planning.

Again: resilience is revitalization plus adaptability. Revitalization makes poor or damaged places wealthier, and wealthy places healthier. Adaptability helps make the good times last. We should keep in mind that health and wealth both in their holistic senses are emergent qualities of doing the right things in the right way for the right amount of time. So, they should not be goals in themselves. Their nature is too ephemeral, and their emergence is too unpredictable to serve as deliverables. Traditionally applied primarily to materials and individuals, it has now become a goal of institutions and communities as well as restored ecosystems.

This guide uses the shorter, more elegant form preferred by scientists and educators, and by most English-speakers worldwide. The desire for revitalization can be triggered by a long, slow decline, a sudden disaster, or simply dissatisfaction with the current quality of life.

The desire for resilience is often triggered by recent or impending disaster: a fishery on the edge of collapse, a fragile economy, climate-related agricultural challenges, etc. So, revitalization is motivated by present-day pain, whereas resilience is motivated by a desire to avoid future pain. The two goals have obvious overlaps.

This book is not about resilience in the traditional sense. There are many excellent books on that subject. Judith Rodin , published in November of Her page work on resilience was especially insightful because it included a chapter on revitalization. Refocusing these established community and regional assets on resilient prosperity is thus the low-hanging fruit. An obvious and frequent connection between resilience and regeneration is in post-disaster situations. This book thus comes at resilience from an oblique angle. They know that one of the most important principles of resilience is flexibility, yet they try to use their old, inflexible planning and management systems to implement it.

A related area in which resilience efforts get into trouble is in making safety their primary or even sole goal. Safety sounds like a reasonable objective, but it can become a rigid, fear-based ethos, preventing us from taking the risks needed to innovate and become more flexible and, ironically, safer. There is no safety: there is only safer. In excessive fear lies vulnerability.

Resilience makes revitalization durable, and adaptive management keeps it relevant via flexible implementation. Together, these three trends form the conceptual basis of a path to resilient prosperity. This book will turn those broad concepts into a specific process you can put to use immediately in your community or organization.

Adaptive management constantly reorients actions towards what actually works. Resilience and adaptation most often converge when places prepare for climate change-related sea level rise and storms.

Not surprisingly, Florida has a great deal of activity in this regard. Their Department of Economic Opportunity DEO offers many web resources on community resilience and adaptation planning. They list dozens of potential funding sources for such projects. But adaptation efforts are not the same as adaptive management. While shared visions and goals can enhance success, adaptive management helps ensure progress even in their absence, and even when the goals turn out to be faulty.

Adaptive management is thus more focused on the journey of renewal, rather than the destination. A good revitalization strategy will, of course, adapt to the challenges of a changing climate. That requires stronger, not weaker, environmental regulations. Likewise, a good climate resilience strategy will adapt to the challenges of a changing economy. Writers write. Fixers fix. The ability to fix assets—or situations such as depressed communities —is often the only characteristic fixers share.

They arise from all socioeconomic backgrounds, professions, and age groups. So, the job of those who wish to revitalize places is simple: either become a fixer, or attract fixers. If one is successful at the latter, one joins the ranks of fixers. In our present-day world—which is more broken than at any previous time in history even our climate is broken!

For most of the past century, community redevelopment has been a top-down activity. It was envisioned and run by political leaders and government agencies. When a public leadership vacuum existed, it was controlled by real estate developers, whose projects both sprawl and redevelopment were often at odds with the best interests of the community. Over the past couple of decades, a strong movement towards bottom-up resident-led revitalization efforts emerged. Our modern times—characterized by ubiquitous and accelerating economic, environmental, and social crises—has collided with an onslaught of disintermediating technologies such as crowdsourcing and crowdfunding that bypass traditional command-and-control hierarchies.

The result is that leadership of community revitalization has become diffuse, emergent, and opportunistic. Is resident-led renewal a real thing? Fire houses, police stations, schools closed, garbage ignored, streets unrepaired. That is why New York grew again, instead of shrank. The same pattern of regeneration took hold in small doses slowly in Savannah, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, San Antonio and more. Anyone can have a great idea for renewing their neighborhood, city or region.

This has always been the case. This is the root of the rise of fixers. The flip side is that they must also learn to resist initiatives that retard revitalization, whether they come from elected leaders or powerful developers. These fixes could be in a city, such as renewing an empty building, decrepit park, or drug-ridden neighborhood.

They could be in a rural area, such as restoring farmlands depleted by overgrazing or industrial agriculture. Or they could be in a natural place, such as reviving a damaged reef or estuary. What they hate is being changed. So too, most people enjoy self-organizing into effective groups and teams. This explains why so many community engagement exercises yield so few lasting, measurable results.

Most fixers fix only the present existing problems. Revitalization without resilience, in other words. These are often the private fixers. Public fixers also fix the present, but are also responsible for the longer term—fixing the future—so they must also identify and reduce vulnerabilities. Many fail outright. Of those that succeed, many will achieve a burst of growth and renewal, only to see it fade. This can be even more painful and psychologically devastating to the citizens than outright failure. Syncing your community or organization with the adaptive renewal megatrend involves two key areas of change:.

The most certain way to succeed is always to try just one more time. But many places do give up, and citizens acquiesce. Adaptive management has no endpoint. It keeps regeneration and resilience processes viable. Identifying such overlaps early can greatly increase both funding and public support for expensive projects.

But these same places often have a wealth of damaged and depleted landscapes. It would work almost anywhere—especially arid lands—as there are few places on the planet where the local water resources, wildlife, and topsoil have not already been significantly degraded.

At the time, many of the U. Over a century of rampant, unregulated deforestation to build ships and cities had ensured that outcome. Too bad Teddy never created a strategy to activate that vision. The U. The still-emerging field of regenerative economics was launched in with the publication of my first book, The Restoration Economy. Today, new approaches to restorative economic development are arising on a regular basis.

The Restoration Economy was the first book to document the rapid rise of a broad spectrum of regenerative industries and disciplines. Some of them were quite new at the time of its publication, such as restoration ecology and brownfields remediation. In fact, the U. These eight sectors involve the regeneration of the natural and built environments. Revitalization of the socioeconomic environment is a fairly automatic outcome of that work, if restorative development of the natural and built environments is done strategically, and with that goal in mind.

The good news is that regeneration of our built, natural and socioeconomic environments exploded after The Restoration Economy first appeared. But I enjoy thinking that the book might have accelerated the trend just a teensy bit. What was exceptional back in is now pretty much the norm. Everyone wants to get on with restoring nature and regenerating our cities.

We just need to add one rather major new agenda to that original mix: restoring our climate. How about professional hockey? The NHL Foundation pledged to restore gallons of stream flow to the Deschutes River in Oregon for every goal scored during the regular season. Regenerative economics was advanced six years later when McGraw-Hill Professional a now-defunct division of McGraw-Hill published my second book, Rewealth.

The Restoration Economy was documenting a historic shift in the global economy, so it was more theoretical. Rewealth contains case studies of places coming back to life in a dramatic and unexpected manner—as well as the professionals and businesses that help them do so—so it was more practical. It was published by Berrett-Koehler Publishers , the same wonderful folks who had published The Restoration Economy a decade earlier. The architecture of ownership is key. Kelly and Korten were right that affecting the behavior of those who own capital and real assets is crucial to restoring both our planet and confidence in our economies.

The majority of economic activity worldwide now consists of gambling. There is no effective difference between these derivatives and making a bet at the horse track. They are merely a way for those with access to privileged information to siphon money out of the market. If we want economic restoration, we need to first cleanse the economy of giant parasites.

Otherwise, it would be like setting a boat on a new course, while ignoring the gaping holes in its hull. Only altering the fundamental basis of wealth creation can subvert it. Economic activity that increases our resource base can flip that pyramid on its head, creating ever-greater health, wealth, and happiness for all. This minimizes disruption to our political structures, since money is the basis of political power.

In other words, this is a revolution that can—in theory—be implemented without bloodshed. The regeneration of our planet could be reduced to a change in prefix. Transitioning to a global or local restoration economy happens when we move… …from development to redevelopment …from despoilment to remediation …from depletion to replenishment …from demolition to reuse …from destruction to restoration …from degeneration to regeneration.

In other words, we need to stop being degenerates, and start becoming regenerates. The de-re shift could be greatly accelerated via a shift to true-cost AKA: full-cost accounting, but that would undermine far too many huge corporation with powerful political connections. The lack of true-cost accounting enables many archaic, inappropriate industries to live far past their sell-by date.

Fossil fuel firms continue to claim that renewables are too expensive. In fact, fossil fuels are many times more expensive, but their costs are hidden. Many other authors have written entire books on the subject, so let me just offer one example to the uninitiated. Canadian tar sands extraction is a top contender for the most criminally-irresponsible industry on the planet.

Their political influence enables them to enjoy freedom from normal business costs. A shift to true-cost accounting would automatically shift economies from degenerative to regenerative activities: the numbers would force it. Instead, the current incremental approach is the only other option; more of a long-term economic gut renovation than sudden demolition and replacement. Photo credit: Storm Cunningham. That said, not everything is worth saving. Demolition can, in fact, make way for progress. But demolition without a follow-up revitalization strategy can lead to social and economic isolation.

Some buildings are simply too ugly or too badly-constructed to be worth saving, like the FBI headquarters here in Washington, DC. FBI headquarters. Photo: Storm Cunningham. Other buildings are rendered un-reusable by water damage from poorly-maintained roofs, or by vandals such as copper thieves. This can sometimes make sense in places that desperately need to downsize their infrastructure maintenance budget to cope with a drastically lower population like Youngstown, Ohio , but only if they have a strategic renewal process in place.

Speaking of Ohio, the Slavic Village neighborhood of Cleveland provides some insights into the relationship of demolition and rehabilitation. Slavic Village was the epicenter of the national foreclosure crisis: it had the highest number of foreclosures of any zip code in the country in and The predominantly African-American neighborhood is now revitalizing nicely, thanks in large part to a not-for-profit organization called Slavic Village Development SVD.

Now that these funds are drying up, the Cuyahoga Land Bank is shifting to what often makes far more sense: rehabilitation. In Japan, they tend to appreciate the uniqueness of a flaw or irregularity in a new product it gives it personality: making it an object only one person owns , and the decrepitude of an old object. Wabi-sabi is a world view centered on the acceptance of transience and imperfection. Characteristics of the wabi-sabi aesthetic include asymmetry, roughness, simplicity, economy, austerity, modesty, intimacy, and appreciation of the ingenuous integrity of natural objects and processes.

Here in the USA, we worship visual perfection. In most other nations, by comparison, the ancient and the afflicted can walk in plain view down the street without drawing looks of disgust, horror or even outright anger at their polluting of our visual environment. An estimated percent of all food grown, processed and transported in the United States is never eaten. It should be celebrated.

He says this helps people understand the issue better and makes them want to celebrate—rather than waste—produce. As so often happens, North America trails behind Europe in embracing its love for ugly fruit and vegetables. Restoration of historic buildings and old artwork is a multi-billion-dollar per year business worldwide.

But some ancient art is actually more beautiful in its aged state. And leaving a few well-built abandoned buildings unrestored adds a bit of age diversity to the visual environment.

City Methodist Church. In Gary, Indiana, they seem to get this concept. City Methodist Church, a grand, Gothic cathedral, has been abandoned for almost 50 years. Yet you can see it all over the internet, on Flickr and Instagram, and in movies like Transformers 3. But Gary might be the first to use these ruins in a purposeful, strategic manner to boost their economy.

Today, most of the algorithms that run massively complex tasks financial trading, weather forecasting, Netflix recommendations, etc. Applying these insights at the human level is more of a challenge, but it can be done. For instance, politicians wishing to transform their city or nation should know that complex systems are best altered by changing the most basic decision-making rules of the system.

Most urban planning instead tries to make arbitrary decisions for local agents. This is not a criticism of the concept of planning, only the practice , which is often based on centralized—rather than distributed—control, and on blind obedience to the plan in those few cases where the plan is actually implemented. Sometimes, only one local rule needs to be changed.

For instance, the struggling downtowns of many small U. Two core problems that undermine sustainability and resilience worldwide are both related to accounting rules: 1 the aforementioned lack of full-cost accounting , and 2 lack of what I dubbed trimodal accounting and policymaking in my first book, The Restoration Economy.

Due to the lack of full cost accounting, both natural disasters and fossil fuel extraction go onto the books as economic growth, because we credit the jobs they create. Restorative development is where almost all of the good economic news resides these days. Too many people conflate population growth and economic growth.

We could actually have economic growth and population decrease simultaneously, which would be the best of all worlds. As we enter the Anthropocene Epoch, restorative development will be—directly or indirectly—the source of most economic growth. Embedding simple rules like repurposing, renewing, and reconnecting into policy can accelerate a transition into restorative development.

Many folks rightfully bemoan the plague of obsolete, decrepit, vacant structures and toxic, degraded, depleted lands and water bodies. For instance, Wales has long been an economic basket case. They were heavily dependent on coal mining for almost three centuries, so the shift to cleaner forms of energy, and cheaper sources of coal, hit them hard.

During that period, the European Union repeatedly awarded Wales the highest level of economic aid called Objective One in , and Ynys Llanddwyn in Anglesey, Wales. Some good approaches have been suggested, such as keeping the focus on energy, but shifting to renewal sources. But none of these visions were supported by a national strategy: they only had a long string of projects. The turning point for long-suffering Wales will come when it has a process that links a regenerative program, regenerative vision, regenerative strategy, regenerative policies, regenerative partners and regenerative projects.

Where we seldom see economists is in economic rebirth situations; either during or after the fact. Why is that? Most economists are similar to engineers, in both their love of control and their fear of surprises. This is why few degreed economists work in the messy fields of community revitalization or natural resources restoration. For three decades, well-meaning folks have been in the thrall of sustainable development.

Sustainable development was coined as a dialog tool, a compromise designed to bring together the forces of unbridled economic growth and the forces of environmental responsibility. As a dialog, it has achieved some wonderful things. Many online dialogs have been started in recent years by folks who recognize the problems with sustainable development, and who are looking for a better name. Smart growth, breakthrough economy, clean economy, conscious economy, cooperative economy, capitalism 2. As is often the case, the terminological solution is hiding in plain sight: restorative or regenerative, if you prefer economic development.

Reconomics, in other words. The current default—which is encouraged by policy and subsidized in practice—is still mostly sprawl and virgin resource extraction. Part of the problem is that we assume restorative development is merely an aspect our normal economic paradigm, as opposed to an emerging alternative. We can see the wisdom of defining and measuring the difference between recycled and virgin paper, glass, or metal. They are quite happy being free to make money by sprawling a community in a way that kills its historic downtown and undermines its environmental health and quality of life.

When they do take on the occasional redevelopment project, they are just as happy to be able to doff the black hat and don the white hat, playing the role of community hero. This confusion permeates all of economic theory and policy: academics perpetuate it and politicians implement it.

Complex systems evolve; sometimes incrementally, sometimes discontinuously, spasmodically, and asymmetrically. Thus, we should expect the next mode of economic growth to emerge in parallel with the old mode. But politicians want us to believe we can fix everything by tinkering with the old model thus, not threatening the old money that backs their campaigns.

If we do that, the insanity of fossil fuels, fission energy, sprawl, and unsustainable resource extraction becomes plainly evident, and the sanity of restorative development and clean technology becomes equally evident. They love that. We can measure how much more a restored historic theater is worth. We can measure how many more fish are in a restored river. We can measure how much healthy topsoil has been rebuilt on a restored farm.

We can measure how much more biodiversity inhabits a restored meadow. We can measure how much less toxicity is in the ground at a remediated old industrial site. Sustainable for how long: years? Sustainable with what population: 8 billion? For instance, as I write this on June 15, , the Amazon rainforest has lost square kilometers just during the past 31 days. A major problem is institutional dynamics. So, they instinctively stop listening—or even go on the attack—when someone questions the efficacy of the sustainability dialog. Sustainable development should have started at least two centuries ago.

Given the failure of both their national leaders and global NGOs to address it, people are taking arid land restoration into their own hands. Ecological restoration is a powerful economic revitalizer, but its full value is often underestimated because our metrics are too simplistic. Our societal learning disability vis a vis the shift from new development to restorative development is producing a societal earning disability, as our resource base crumbles.

Traditional economics is a never-ending search for the unicorns of stasis, equilibrium, and predictability. It arbitrarily assumes linear, mechanical effects in the system, and purely rational behavior in the individual agents. Or rather they have several theories, each of which contradicts the others, and none of which is fully supported by the data. Like reductionist disciplines, conventional economists are loath to recognize that the whole is more than the sum of its parts. This, in turn, is why most economists either 1 teach economics, or 2 work for government agencies and large corporations.

In the latter situations, their primary duties involve justifying whatever course of action has already been decided upon, and legitimizing previous actions. Conventional economics is designed by economists for economists, and so has little relevance to the chaos and complexities of reality. But an economy—by definition—encompasses natural resources, infrastructure, agriculture, urban societies, information, technology, psychology and much more. This inherent holism makes an economics degree a wonderful background for anyone doing useful, high-level work i.

It attempts to understand a world where individuals react to patterns that their decisions have helped create, and how those patterns alter as a result of their reaction, which means individuals must react again. Thermostats offer a simple example of negative feedback. They monitor the temperature in a room, raising or lowering it when the temperature violates an established threshold.

Negative feedback thus reduces fluctuations. The supply and demand dynamic in economies is another example. Equilibrium prices are established and maintained thanks to the negative feedback between the price of a product and demand for it in the idealized world of accepted economic theory. The feedback-based swarming of starlings takes place without centralized leadership. The melting of polar icecaps from atmospheric warming is an example of positive feedback.

The smaller surface area of ice reduces the albedo energy-reflecting effect of the ice, thus accelerating the melt by raising the average atmospheric temperature. The recruiting process in honeybee hives is also an example of positive feedback. Scout bees dance to advertise a new hive site they find attractive, thus recruiting additional scouts to visit that site. The more bees that are thus recruited, the more will be advertising the new site, which recruits still more. Positive feedback loops produce both increases and decreases that are far out of proportion to the inputs. Whereas traditional economic theories only acknowledge negative feedback loops diminishing returns , complexity economics also accepts the reality of positive feedback loops increasing returns.

The increasing returns phenomenon has been known of since the time of Adam Smith, but conventional economists closed their minds to it, because it throws all of their most beloved theories for a loop pun intended. In , Sir John Hicks, a founder of modern economics, said that acknowledging the reality of increasing returns would wreck established economic theory.

It would rob standard economic models of the two qualities most prized by economists: determinism and simplicity. The courageous work of forcing economics to deal with reality was pioneered in the modern age by Stanford economist W. Brian Arthur. This is similar to the way classical e. Image credit: R. Nave, Georgia State University. The opposite of such movements also arise—those promoting fear, ignorance, and separation—and these produce both social and economic devitalization. Acknowledgement of the reality of increasing returns thus makes complexity economics the only form of economics that can deal with the dynamics of revitalization.

An obvious factor in devising any successful strategy is basing it on a reasonably accurate perception of the situation one wishes to change. Turning a blind eye to the messy, complex nature of economic revitalization—local, regional, or national—is not an option in the real world, as it is in academia. In the summer of , Harvard Business Review published one of the most influential articles in its long history: W. Business strategists rely on increasing returns, but the theory has yet to make any serious inroads in the practice of community economic revitalization.

A dreamed-of goal of all revitalization efforts is to trigger an increasing returns situation. Combine an acceptance of increasing returns with the trimodal development perspective plus full-cost accounting , and one has a solid foundation for a new field of study: resilient economies , or reconomics for short. Its purpose would be to generate useful insights into the process of bringing places back to life, leading to better strategies and management.

Financing for revitalization and resilience efforts is just as siloed and fragmented as are the many professions, organizational types, and government agencies. The problem lies more in finding the appropriate funding when its needed. This is a great opportunity for a tech company. Linking it with mapping would be ideal, so maybe Google or Esri should be looking into this. A single source—localized and global—of information and links to regenerative foundation grants, government grants, community bonds, startup financing, bridge financing, equity investors, impact investors, individual investors, crowdfunding, institutional investors, tax credits, etc.

Such a tool would allow organizations like land banks to become far more holistic in their revitalization efforts. And it would enable resilience efforts to more easily integrate with revitalization agendas. It often seems that there are too many sources of money—which complicates revitalization and resilience—but the real problem is the lack of a good tool for finding them. Many additional funding sources suddenly appear when project leaders climb out of their mental silos. For instance, a historic building is often viewed as just that: a heritage asset.

It might be in a low-income neighborhood that would entitle it to New Market or other tax credits, depending on how it is going to be repurposed. It might contain hazardous materials, entitling it to brownfield remediation resources. It might be an ideal site for affordable housing, which opens up another realm of funding and tax credits. The list of potentially-connected agendas that could lead to additional design, development, start-up, or operational funding is almost endless. Normally, the people proposing projects are unaware of these overlaps.

Even when they are aware of them, they often lack the manpower and expertise to investigate or pursue them. But the kind of integrated funding locator described above would ideally suggest non-obvious agendas and related resources. A park with beautiful natural features will generally attract more users if it also has historic features. Many federal and state funding sources focus on programs, not projects.

An example in the U. So, creating a local process that includes an ongoing program broadens your funding opportunities. Such national programs often focus on clean energy, resilience, poverty, etc. Governments and foundations are finally realizing that most of these societal and environmental challenges can only be addressed by ongoing programs, not by one-time projects.

The second aspect of attracting new sources of funding is to tax only what you want to reduce in your community or region, so as to increase desirable behaviors. For at least a century, practical economists have recommended taxing those activities we want less of, and using some of the resulting revenue to encourage what we want more of. Using fossil fuel taxes to fund research and development of renewable energy or the creation of public transit is an obvious application of this approach. Even where they do, their projects usually decrease local quality of life by reducing greenspace, damaging watersheds, adding to traffic congestion, increasing air pollution, and devitalizing historic downtowns.

Such a fund could boost public transit, brownfields cleanup, infill development, watershed restoration, historic structure renovation, etc. Likewise, resource extraction companies lumber, fossil fuel, mining, and ranching, etc. Even when they are, they usually just declare bankruptcy and create a new corporate entity to avoid paying. Requiring substantial restoration escrow accounts prior to mining, fracking, clearcutting, etc.

This has recently become the norm with mining in many U. Both those institutions are now tarnished. The market is prone to devastating crashes and seems to be producing widening inequality. Government is gridlocked, sclerotic or captured by special interests. Impact investing is not socially responsible investing. Socially responsible investing means avoiding certain companies, like tobacco… Impact investors seek out companies that are intentionally designed both to make a profit and provide a measurable and accountable social good.

They are far from helpless. Property taxes offer an obvious area of reform. Currently, they are based on the entire property, both land and improvements such as buildings. This is one of the most revitalizing policy changes a place can make. Speculators are thus punished for sitting on blight, and redevelopers are thus rewarded for improving their properties. A fringe benefit is that most homeowners will see their tax bills drop, often by about a third. This helps prevent the negative feedback loop that kills so many places: devitalization reduces city revenues, so they raise property taxes, which drive out more residents, thus accelerating devitalization.

Put another way, such policy changes help retain the residents and employers you have, while attracting the investors and redevelopers you need. The concept of a land value tax has been around since , when Henry George suggested in it his book, Progress and Poverty. The usual story: the influence of money on politics.

Commercial and industrial property owners are normally among the wealthiest people in any community, and are thus major campaign contributors to mayors an city council members. Brian Charles. In the places where it has been tried and abandoned, the usual cause other than lobbying by land speculators is failure to reassess land values on a regular basis. But if a city or county only reassesses land once every 10 or 20 years, land-based taxes suddenly shoot up, causing voter backlash. Structures often lose value as they age, but land almost always rises in value.

Pittsburgh has used land value tax in its Central Business District since But the major champion of land value taxation in Pennsylvania was Harrisburg mayor Stephen R. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Between , Harrisburg lost businesses and a third of its population. In , the U. It should be noted that Mayor Reed also borrowed hugely for many dubious projects like sports stadiums and an incinerator, which ended up bankrupting the city. More recently, Minneapolis has been considering it. Once again, fear. Middle class and lower income property owners—in others words, most voters—are happy enough with the reduction in taxes the two-tiered system brings to them.

Value-capture funds and land taxes could go into the general tax revenues to fund education, police, fire services, etc. Or, they could go directly towards organizations doing revitalizing work. He says activities of groups like the Tybee Island Historical Society attract tourists, while enhancing the quality of life for year-round residents. Tax increment financing TIF has financed far more redevelopment and revitalization work in the U. TIF allows communities to borrow from the value of future revitalization in order to fund the work needed to make that revitalization happen now.

A baseline of current tax revenues if any from that area is documented. Then, an estimate is made of the tax revenues that the District would be generating in 20 or 30 years if it were successfully revitalized. The community then borrows against a portion of that increment, and uses the money to stimulate that revitalization. TIF funds are best used to pave the way for the private sector; performing infrastructure improvements and brownfields assessments even remediation that make a dead section of town more attractive to redevelopers.

It also helps small places do large projects when necessary. The first TIF was created in California in Due mostly to perceived risk, TIF has been slow to catch on in more-cautious nations. As with any other good tool, people will find a way to twist it to their own selfish purposes over time. Political leaders abuse it by directing the funds to their friends, mostly in the form of unnecessary subsidies. Places misuse it to fund sprawl, rather than redevelopment. And some places overuse it to the point where their general tax revenues are depleted, making it harder to pay for essential services like schools and police.

All three of those problems tend to result from a combination of insufficient transparency and revitalization ignorance. Many cities complain that overuse of TIF has damaged their school funding. But the Union Township of greater Cincinnati—recognizing the role of quality education in revitalization—announced in January of that a new high school would be constructed with TIF funding, using no taxpayer money.

Each state has their own flavor of TIF. Some establish different qualifying conditions to allow for the creation of different types of TIF districts. Minnesota, for instance, allows for six district types: economic development, housing, redevelopment, renewal and renovation, soil condition, and hazardous waste substance subdivisions. Illinois allows TIF to be used for remediating blight, for conserving areas with many structures older than 35 years, and for promoting industrial parks in areas of high unemployment.

But they often forget to actually define blight well enough to avoid its being used for sprawl. For an example of abuse, look at the billionaire Koch brothers. Many see this as corporate socialism. What does this have to do with TIF, you ask? But they wanted the taxpayers of this small, working-class city to help them do it. This means that taxes which would have gone towards paying for schools, roads, police, etc.

This was blatant abuse of TIF, which should only be used to fund community redevelopment and revitalization. Large employers across America use similar forms of extortion. They threaten to leave communities that are desperate for jobs, demanding tax breaks, free land and subsidies…hardly the behavior of good corporate citizens. In the old days, when most newspapers had investigative reporters, they would have blown the whistle on such a scheme.

The only newspaper coverage I could find was in the local Enid News and Eagle , which ran a puff piece extolling the virtues of the plan without explaining the cost to citizens. Most cities spend TIF funds on repurposing and renewing properties. To fund the first phase, Milwaukee simply extended the lifespan of existing TIF districts. For the second phase, which extends it to their lakefront, a new TIF district is being formed. But the most overlooked source is that well-proven revitalization tool described above: tax increment financing TIF.

But I believe it has tremendous potential for funding the restoration of natural resources and green urban infrastructure. The latter will likely emerge soon, in these days of climate change-related superstorms, floods, droughts, etc. In December of , the U. It might be based, for instance, on resource depletion, such as current oyster or crab harvest levels from a bay compared to historical levels.

Some major projects in the U. The aforementioned 11th Street Bridge project here in Washington, DC is also looking at TIF-like value-capture mechanisms to fund the bridge repurposing, as well as nearby ecological restoration and park creation along the Anacostia River shoreline. Just as urban TIF funding sets the stage for increased private redevelopment via infrastructure and brownfields renewal, so too would GreenTIF funding set the stage for increased commercial usage via environmental restoration.

Of course, the performance specifications would need to call for the restoration of the diverse ecosystem in which those commercial species or ecosystem services are found, not just for the increased production of commercial species like blue crabs or striped bass in the Chesapeake themselves. In addition to simply being the right thing to do, this would help ensure the resilience of the harvest. As you probably know, salmon farms—whether based in rivers, estuaries or the open ocean—are usually environmental disasters. They pollute the water with excess food, concentrated fish excrement, antibiotics and growth hormones.

They also contaminate wild salmon stocks with genetically-modified fish that inevitably escape. And, their food comprises vast quantities of smaller wild fish, thus depleting food stocks for wild salmon, mackerel and other species. In , they started building a state-of-the-art Atlantic salmon recirculating aquaculture system RAS facility in Bucksport, Maine. Image: Whole Oceans. This project will be one of the largest land-based aquaculture projects in the world. Whole Oceans will not have to pay property taxes for the first five years of the year agreement on any new property value it creates from developing the salmon farm.

It will pay 25 percent of its new property tax obligations over the subsequent five years and 50 percent for the remaining 10 years. Interested individuals and institutions are invited to inquire about involvement. Just as repurposing, renewing and reconnecting physical assets revitalizes communities, so too can repurposing narrowly-targeted, short-term financial assets and reconnecting them to serve broader, long-term agendas. In the process, we can also renew and expand project funding to serve programmatic goals. The majority of such opportunities arise with infrastructure funding.

In , U. Whenever natural, built, and socioeconomic assets are renewed, repurposed, or reconnected to create a greener, more inclusive economy, both revitalization and resilience are advanced. But the adaptive renewal megatrend will make it easier rectify some of the inefficiencies and dysfunctions arising from the current fragmentation of urban and regional governance and management. He published the landmark Montana Restoration Economy report in But that was primarily focused on watershed, fishery and brownfield regeneration: no one has properly documented the holistic revitalization of whole communities or regions, which would also include the regeneration of heritage, infrastructure, agriculture, ecosystems and disaster zones.

Its purpose was to explore the job creation and economic revitalization potential of the post-BP oil spill restoration activities. On a finite planet with a growing population, basing economic growth primarily on renewing the capacity of our existing natural and urban assets is obvious. Restoring our climate is an equally-obvious agenda and growth industry , since not doing so will undermine virtually every investment we make. Since it might already be too late to reverse the cycle no one knows for sure then adapting to climate change and making places more resilient is a logical adjunct.

But the shift to healing and rebuilding is primarily happening locally, not at state or national levels. Some cities run out of room for sprawl before others. Some countries especially small island nations run out of natural resources before others. In both cases, they are forced to switch to regenerative economic growth.

Tiny, natural resource-poor Singapore became a global model of sustainable economic growth by regenerating their governance—making it more transparent and competent accomplished in part by paying public servants very well, which reduces corruption —and by regenerating the capacity of their citizens via universal, high-quality education. If your economic growth…. All of the above factors, when missing, lead to instability, insecurity, and inertia. This reduces confidence in the future, thus undermining economic growth.

Merely tweaking the current economic and political system—rather than overhauling it into a regenerative model—is like having someone pointing a a gun at your head, and trying to remedy the situation by making sure the gun is in good working order.

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I often ask city leaders what strategy their comprehensive plan is based on. A vision is a destination. A plan is a collection of activities. A strategy is what enables those activities to succeed. A strategy thus helps dreams become reality. When presidents, mayors, CEOs and consultants promise success to their constituents and clients, they tend to focus on one or two key elements. It might be vision: having an aspirational, well-defined goal is the key, they say. Or it might be strategy: knowing how one is going to overcome obstacles to achieve that goal is the secret, they say.

Or that the magic is in the plan: detailing the needed activities. Others focus on resources and support, claiming that the ultimate source of success is in forging good partnerships. Is the secret to success found in program, vision, strategy, policies, partnerships or projects? The answer is all of them. The key is a strategic renewal process: a complete, integrated system of elements needed to produce the desired result.

Each of the six elements named above is crucial to the process of producing resilient prosperity. For instance, the policies you need are determined by your vision and strategy. The partners you need are determined by the combination of your vision, strategy, policies, and local assets as in: who owns them. Many worthwhile initiatives struggle in vain to make a difference, due to lack of strategic skills. The simple, sensible tactic?

Pay the best teachers better. But there was no strategy for dealing with established teacher contracts or state laws. But he did so with no knowledge of the community revitalization process, no apparent desire to learn about it, and no perceptible strategy. A decade later, a few urban improvements are evident, but no revitalization momentum has been generated. Because his year tenure was marked by good vision, bad strategy, and poor timing.

For instance: in , he rightly saw that the world needed more power generation, so he decided to expand the GE Power division. That was a good vision. That might have been a good strategy a few decades ago. Not so much. And he did it just as renewable energy became cost-competitive, compounding a bad strategy with poor timing. Everyone says they have a strategy, but few can state it. Everyone knows what a tactic is, and assume a strategy is a collection of tactics.

Little wonder, then, that folks are confused as to the difference between a strategy and a plan. One of the differences is that people with a strategy tend to take action. Delivering the plan often becomes the measure of success. A good strategy can be created in minutes, by the right person with the right awareness. Action can follow immediately. With adaptive management, you can start now.

With planning, you can only start when the plan is done.

Guide How to Raise Resilient Bounce Back Kids (77 Ways to Parent Series Book 5)

Action leads to action…. Even among those who know they need a strategy, few know how to create a good one. And even fewer know how to implement one. A strategy is the core technique that guides decisions to help ensure success, so it must be brief and memorable. Maybe the biggest obstacle to creating revitalization strategies is siloing: everyone works on the pieces, no one on the whole.

Strategists usually facilitate the emergence of a strategy , rather than craft one in isolation. We are a non-profit. Revitalization and redevelopment is handled by county staff. Some of those new employers reuse old buildings or brownfield sites, which makes them even more interesting to us.

But it gets worse: many economic development agencies are decades behind in their thinking, and still consider sprawl and tax holidays to be the only way to grow an economy. Our services are focused primarily on greenfield opportunities — incentivizing companies to build brand new facilities, normally on property that has not been developed before.

This allows us…to believe that our years of education were worthwhile because we can recognize each other and sneer at the impostors. In the meantime, the rest of the world takes thoughtful advice and opinions from people who sometimes, while not having our illustrious pedigree, have…better ideas. Economic revitalization agendas often fall into the interstitial spaces among the silos.

Folks have talked about the silo problem for decades. Does it still exist? Reductionism, the belief that we can understand or worse, control the behavior of living systems by isolating and analyzing their parts, is a form of insanity. One thing it leads to is isolated specialization of knowledge: understanding the trees, but being clueless about forest dynamics. Physical silos are handy when we wish to keep our barley separate from our hops.

Beer makers can access those silos and combine their contents to brew ale. Managing and funding our parks separately from our water infrastructure might make sense, but those two agencies need to be able to coordinate when a watershed restoration effort is underway. The right revitalization process taps these stakeholder and resource silos, without requiring established institutions to change their structure or behavior.

But most do. Silos can also be defined geographically. It might not be insane to revitalize a downtown or a Main Street without including suburbs and surrounding rural areas in the process, but it certainly wastes a lot of potential, reduces resilience and hamstrings success. Why do so many disciplines confine themselves to ever-narrower silos?

Part of it is the modern human tendency towards shutting out more and more of the world, in order to come up with simpler and simpler—often non-fact-based—explanations for how it works. Another part of it is turf-protection, which is similar to warfare: as other disciplines make inroads, the borders are withdrawn to a smaller, more-defensible perimeter.

Most professional societies and associations inhibit integrative approaches, usually while proclaiming their support of them. One of the goals of association managers, for instance, is to create a microcosm in which their members can be important, influential, and honored. This is done by tightly focusing on the one area of knowledge or expertise in which they excel over others, and by giving them the opportunity to earn impressive titles within that organization.

This is nice for the members, but often not so nice for the world they effect, as they become more inwardly-focused. A focus on integrative approaches widens their field, diluting their uniqueness. For instance: the members of an association focused on ecological restoration might know that their discipline and projects benefit greatly when integrated with community or regional economic revitalization programs. All that being said, organizational silos do tend to contain many resources and a lot of expertise. She destroyed every last ounce of confidence I might have had in myself to make my own decisions.

Even my hairstyle and clothing was chosen by her, even though I personally hated my hair and the clothes were not what I would have personally picked. I tried very hard to have my own life, make my own decisions - but failed miserably to have a career. I have a degree that I've never used. Not that I didn't try - I tried very hard, but could never get hired. I put it down to coming across to people as strange. I think my lack of confidence showed, as well as my lack of social skills.

As a family, we almost never interacted with other people. In school, I was shy and awkward because I never felt sure about anyone liking me. The fact that I often had no or few friends didn't seem to matter one iota to her. Her bigger concerns were having a clean house and that we did everything we were told. I felt my own mother didn't like me much, despite her protestations to the contrary, even today. She deeply criticized me at every opportunity about each and every little thing.

And if I didn't do something like she thought I should, she had a way of making me feel a disaster of immense proportions would certainly befall me. I always felt as if death or some vague but tremendous punishment was awaiting me should I slip up. Her yelling and greatly exaggerated facial expressions and voice did not help matters. I always felt in a great panic, even over what would seem little or unimportant matters to other people.

She nearly drove me crazy. In fact, you might say she DID drive me and my siblings crazy, because we do not live what I consider "normal" lives as compared to the lives of others around us. But my mother lives in complete denial of any of this, which just makes it harder. She likes to live in a fantasy world in which she views herself as having been an "Ozzie and Harriet" parent.

She's been far from that. She won't face that her children all have problems stemming from her misguided parenting. I've tried to tell her at different times about the problems she caused when we were growing up, but I end up getting all of the blame for what she did. It's a wonder that I'm even able to function. I've given up trying to tell her anything because she is now simply too old and too stubborn and is a completely lost cause. So I just do what's within my power to do. If I can't take being around her - then I don't stay around her. I don't try to take revenge or hurt her emotionally, because that just doesn't do anything to a person who thinks they've done nothing wrong.

All it does is aggravate me further. The best thing I can do is decide what I want for myself and put up boundaries that I won't allow her to cross. I'm no longer at her mercy because I live in my own house and she can no longer control my life to the extent she could when I was younger. I had an inkling that you were perhaps an only child who had parents from large families. Also in the large family psychology, children are taught not to trust anything outside of their immediate family circle.

As a result, children from large families are quite wary of people outside their circle. They are even suspicious of environments that aren't their own. It is no accident that people from large families can be classified as narrow-minded, not wanting to venture outside of their familial circle. I am separated by 9 and 10 years to two older sisters, so yes I am like an only child.

My mother was from a large dysfunctional family 8 children and she was the youngest and my father was the first born of a second marriage for both of his parents creating a blended family of 5 children. My father was shot and almost killed when I was 3 months old injecting more fear and anxiety into the familial mix. I would definitely agree that the attempts to keep me safe and alive because I became very ill as an infant and almost died from pneumonia while my father was recovering from being shot extended throughout my upbringing But I have learned to take responsibility for myself and care for myself.

Despite not having those hallmark happenings in my life of marraige and children, I have been consistently employed, have owned a home and I enjoy what I do. I am artistic and that helps me with some of my emotional issues because it is such a great way for me to express myself and know myself. I am not unhappy that I did not have children because I think it would have not been a good decision earlier in my life when I was waiting for someone else to come take care of me.

Now I am a good parent to myself. I want to ask you a question?

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Were you the only child of parents who came from large families? Also, parents from large families tend to inject their familial psychology on their children. People from large families have a fear based philosophy. People from large families have a philosophy of them vs us which they impart to their children. Their fear of losing you or having something bad happen to you is going to make life hard for you in the future. They need to read what you have written. To your parents- I am a 48 year old woman whose parents overprotected me similarly.

I have struggled through my life, never married, have few friends and never had children. I was always paralyzed by the fear of the world that my parents instilled in me. It has taken a long time for me to learn to trust and care for myself. Your parents may not change but know that you need to learn to trust yourself and be proactive in life You need to talk to a school guidance counselor who can recommend family therapy.

The problem are your parents. They are not only overprotecting you but infantilizing you. You are being infantilized by your parents. Something needs to be done. If nothing is done, your entire growth will be stunted. You have to be the initiator, speak to a school guidance counselor who can recommend family therapy. What your parents are doing to you is not normal at all but borders on the abusive. Get help immediately! Please help me. For as long as I remember my parents have been the most overprotective out of all the kids at school.

In middle school I was diagnosed with social anxiety and depression. I continued to think their ways were Normal until high school. I got a psychologist who I really like and have a good bond with. Whenever we talk about my problems they always seem to have roots to the same thing: my parents. My parents still refuse to let me ride with her, even from school to her house.

Whenever we want to hang out my mom has to take us and pick us up, or we have to take lyft which is pretty much a waste of money when she could just take us. Are they just gonna treat my like a 6 year old until my first day of college then just expect me to know what to do? I have gotten into trouble a few times, twice for riding with my friend, and once because my mom found something in my drawer, but who HASNT gotten in trouble?!

Or is everyone supposed to be perfect and never make mistakes? But those few times made my parents literally never trust me about anything anymore. At least I realize what theyre doing to me so I can just try to ignore it. Are you insane? To say that only a small percentage of parents are fit to be raising children? That is idiotic. Through the power of philosophy, science, and religion, we know without a shadow of a doubt that every person and thing in existence is subject to Cause and Effect. This means that there is no free will in the whole Universe.

Everything we think is caused. Everything we do is caused. So we are products of our environment. That said. Just as easily as a child can grow up blaming a parent for the way they were raised. The parent could just as easily blame their own parent for the same thing. Second, since the current study employs the questionnaires as its primary measurement method, the common method variance could be a concern.

Although instructions prior to the questionnaires in the current study that made it clear that there were no right or wrong answers helped to reduce the bias of common method variance, future studies could apply other procedural efforts to diminish this risk, such as varying scale types, positive and negative item wordings, and simple and concrete questions Podsakoff et al.

Third, school engagement has been shown to moderately correlate with academic achievement Wang and Holcombe, ; Dotterer and Lowe, It is ideal to measure actual academic achievement, such as grades and test scores of entrance examinations, as outcome variables. However, such information is not available for the current study. Fourth, the current study investigates how growth mindsets contribute to well-being. However, as well-being is not the opposite of negative outcomes, such as depressive symptoms, dysfunctional behaviors, and other psychological problems Bech et al.

It is also reasonable to infer that the growth mindset can serve as a protective factor against psychological problems, such as depression, behaviors problems, school disengagement, burnout, and other negative outcome variables. In conclusion, the current study aims to investigate the possible mediating roles of resilience in the associations between growth mindset, psychological well-being, and school engagement.

Resilience acts as a partial mediator between growth mindset, psychological well-being and school engagement, implying that resilience might be the key factor in reaching the objective of positive education, not only to enhance the well-being of students but also their academic achievement.

What’s Your ACE Score? (and, at the end, What’s Your Resilience Score?)

Research Ethics Committee in psychology Department, Tsinghua university. If they do not want to participate, they can refuse to answer the questionnaires. Most of them agreed. No vulnerable populations were involved.

GZ and HH wrote the manuscript. KP supervised the experimenting, analyzing and writing process. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Aronson, J. Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence.

Bech, P. Methods Psychiatr. Blackwell, L. Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: a longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Dev. Bond, L. Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use, mental health, and academic outcomes. Health 40, e9—e Brooks, R. Raising Resilient Children. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books. Google Scholar. Burnette, J. Mind-sets matter: a meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation.

Byrne, B. New York, NY: Routledge. Caprara, G. Connor, K. Anxiety 18, 76— Diener, E. New Measures of Well-Being. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. New well-being measures: short scales to assess flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Dotterer, A. Classroom context, school engagement, and academic achievement in early adolescence. Dweck, C. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. Implicit theories: elaboration and extension of the model. Inquiry 6, — A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality.

Fang, L. Research on reliability and validity of utrecht work engagement scale-student. Finn, J. Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Finney, S. Hancock and R. Good, C. Hong, Y. Implicit theories, attributions, and coping: a meaning system approach. Hu, L. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives.

Karreman, A. Attachment and well-being: the mediating role of emotion regulation and resilience. Kern, M. Lin, C. Validation of the psychological well-being scale for use in Taiwan. Resilience as a mediator between extraversion, neuroticism and happiness, PA and NA. Marks, H. Student engagement in instructional activity: patterns in the elementary, middle, and high school years.

Molden, D. Nurmi, J. Goal construction, re-construction and depressive symptoms in a life-span context: the transition from school to work. Nussbaum, A. Defensiveness versus remediation: self-theories and modes of self-esteem maintenance. Peterson, C. A Primer in Positive Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Podsakoff, P. Sources of method bias in social science research and recommendations on how to control it.

Preacher, K. For instance, baby-wearing has benefits, but it doesn't appear to stop colicky babies from crying excessively. So evidence in favor of "sensitive, responsive parenting" doesn't tell us that every associated practice is the best choice for a family. If we want to know the effects of a specific practice, we need controlled studies that target that particular practice. It's important that other conceptions of attachment parenting are not consistent with what we know about effective care-giving behavior. They also may be rooted in pseudo-science beliefs about the biology of motherhood.

For example, according to one writer, attachment parenting means responding immediately to a crying infant by offering a breast; "waking every hour" at night to feed; or rushing in with pre-emptive attempts to soothe, so that parents fail to find out what their babies actually need e. This isn't the sort of behavior that has been linked with secure attachments. And it's inconsistent with what researchers mean by "sensitive, responsive parenting. That's not what this definition describes, and all that rushing to intervene can be counter-productive. For instance, babies often make noises during brief moments of waking during the night.

They may also vocalize when they are sleeping. If parents misinterpret these sounds and rush to feed a baby, they are needlessly depriving everyone of sleep -- and perhaps teaching the baby to awaken frequently at night! The implication is mothers are designed to devote all their energies to child-rearing, and thrive doing so. It's the ancestral way. If a mother can't manage it -- or doesn't enjoy it -- something is wrong. Anthropological research refutes these notions. If there are any peoples whose life-ways most closely resemble those of our ancestors, it is the world's last remaining hunter-gatherers.

Yet hunter-gatherer mothers don't devote all their energies to child-rearing. Yes, they have child care duties, but they have other work as well, and they raise their children with the help of relatives and friends. So it's easy to find problems with "attachment parenting" if we define it differently than the Sears have. According to William and Martha Sears, attachment parenting is associated with a range of practices and approaches, including. But William and Martha Sears, who coined the term "attachment parenting"--note that there is no checklist of specific practices that parents must follow Sears and Sears What's important, argues these authors, is that parents strive to be sensitive and responsive -- so that they can learn how to meet their children's needs in an affectionate, effective way.

This is not the same as being overly-protective. By definition, securely-attached kids are not overly-clingy or helpless. They are the kids who feel confident to explore the world on their own. They can do this because they trust that their parents will be there for them Mercer And if we take the Sears's definition to heart -- if attachment parenting is synonymous with "sensitive, responsive parenting" -- then it follows that attachment parenting will look different from one family to the next.

Parents adapt their approaches to suit the individual needs of each child. For example, some babies crave lots of touch and social stimulation, while others may find this to be overwhelming. Being sensitive and responsive means attending to your child's cues, and adjusting your approach accordingly. Advocates of attachment parenting make two major claims:. Some writers have attempted to support these claims with studies of extremely deprived infants both human and nonhuman. For instance, research demonstrates that kids who are terribly neglected and abused—like children raised in the infamous Romanian orphanages—suffer neurocognitive impairment and socio-emotional problems Chugani et al While such research confirms that chronic stress and trauma are bad for the brain, it's a stretch to cite these studies as proof that attachment parenting is superior to "mainstream" Western parenting.

As a result, some critics have argued that the attachment parenting movement is based on overblown or fallacious claims Hayes ; Warner This is unfortunate, because there is good evidence supporting the claims of attachment parenting advocates. First, consider the claim that sensitive, responsive parenting leads to secure bonds.

Many features of attachment parenting have been linked with attachment security:. Then there's the question of child outcomes. Do secure attachments and sensitive, responsive parenting lead to happier, healthier kids? Let's take a look at some specific ways that attachment parenting may benefit children. As noted above, securely-attached children are more likely to explore on their own Mercer In addition, infants are less likely to develop fearful tendencies if their mothers show higher levels of emotional sensitivity and responsiveness during parent-child interactions Gartstein et al When researchers tracked 45 mother-child pairs from infancy to age 7, they found that infants who were securely-attached during infancy were more likely to demonstrate emotional availability at age 7 Easterbrooks et al Secure attachments may be intrinsically helpful, but it's also likely that specific parenting characteristics play a role.

For instance, in a study of American children aged years , researchers found that kids with secure attachment relationships--and greater levels of maternal support--showed "higher levels of positive mood, more constructive coping, and better regulation of emotion in the classroom. In addition, children showed an improved ability to regulate their positive emotions if their mothers showed higher levels of warmth Davidov and Grusec It's true for older children too.

But do these things make a big difference? I think they so, particularly for children who are very sensitive, emotionally reactive, anxious, or exposed to high levels of environmental stress. For example, there is compelling evidence that skin-to-skin contact helps babies develop healthy stress response systems.

In one study comparing two groups of preterm infants, researchers found that children who'd received skin-to-skin contact in the first weeks postpartum had developed, by age 10, more healthy stress response systems, improved sleep patterns, and better cognitive control Feldman et al In addition, studies like co-sleeping with reduced stress reactivity. There is also evidence for the stress-busting power of parental warmth. But studies suggest that kids who have highly nurturing parents are protected from these risks. And the advantage may begin early in life: One study reports that infants of more sensitive mothers had lower baseline levels of the stress hormone cortisol Blair et al Is it inevitable?

It doesn't appear to be. In one study, kids from such backgrounds beat the odds -- if they had parents who showed high levels of warmth and emotional support Luby et al Finally, there is reason to think that positive discipline may help kids bounce back from stress. Observational studies show that securely-attached children are less likely to develop behavior problems Madigan et al Likewise, observational research indicates that children have better behavioral outcomes when they receive sensitive, responsive parenting. For instance, a longitudinal study tracking the development of babies found that children with more sensitive mothers were less likely to experience executive function problems including problems with attention, focus, and impulse control when they were four years old Kok et al These links are suggestive, but not conclusive.

Some children suffer from conditions that put them at higher risk for both behavior problems and difficulties forming attachment relationships. And maternal sensitivity is partly influenced by genes -- genes mothers share with their children Cents et al What if these "maternal sensitivity" genes have the additional, independent effect of making it easier for children to develop strong executive function skills?

We can't jump to conclusions about causation. But controlled experiments help clarify matters, and support the idea that sensitive, responsive parenting can have a direct effect on behavior problems. Some examples:. That result wasn't replicated by a subsequent study, so the jury is still out Steer et al One possibility is that breastfeeding is really just a marker of other parental behaviors and favorable environmental factors.

For instance, breast-feeding mothers tend to be better educated and more affluent. Another possibility is that the benefits of breastfeeding depend on the precise content of breast milk -- that only milk with higher levels of DHA fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid confers special effects on cognitive ability Bernard et al But while we wait for more research to clear these matters up, there are hints secure attachments are linked with higher intellectual achievement.

Another study tracking French-Canadian children found that kids who were securely-attached at age 6 scored higher on communication, cognitive engagement, and motivation to master new skills at age 8 Moss et al Of course, correlation doesn't prove causation. It might be that smarter kids have an easier time forming secure attachments. But there are also experimental studies that suggest a causal link between attachment parenting practices and intelligence, at least in children who would otherwise be at risk.

In these experiments, some mothers were randomly assigned to receive training in responsive parenting techniques. Afterwards, the infants of trained mothers showed greater growth in cognitive skills than did the infants of control moms Landry et al ;. Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Dangerous Mood; how to raise resilient bounce back kids 77 ways to parent series book 5 Manual.

Search Site I know it's going to be a really hard way but I have to change and start having my own life even if I end up all alone without a family of my own. Psychological resilience My mother was from a large dysfunctional family 8 children and she was the youngest and my father was the first born of a second marriage for both of his parents creating a blended family of 5 children.